Fundamental Analysis

Fundamental Analysis: Beginners Guide 2022

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Research is a necessary part of a successful investment; traders analyze the market and study the market factors for excellent investment decisions.

The traders conduct the technical and fundamental analysis that aids them in making the right decisions. The technical analysis is mostly known by all the stock market participants. 

It concerns the market price of the security that is traded, an investor checks the market, and the factors that make the prices fluctuate.

Another important stock analysis tool is the fundamental analysis, which concerns the market economy, financial & fundamental factors, interest rates, quality, and quantity that help determine the security’s intrinsic value. 

So, if you’re looking to get in-depth knowledge about fundamental analysis, this article will surely help you a lot. So, let’s start now!

What Is Fundamental Analysis?

Market trading has always been scary for many traders; they fear the risk, loss, and market segments that make the prices of the security traded fluctuate directly or indirectly.

The most rewarding analysis tool is a fundamental analysis that evaluates the investment by considering the economic, qualitative, quantitative analysis, and financial sectors of the market for analyzing the worth of the security.

The microeconomic and macroeconomic factors are essential for fundamental analysis. These elements of the market, include the economic condition, management proficiency, financial situations, etc.

Traders use the fundamental analysis for predicting the intrinsic value of the security that helps the trader invest in the market.

Moreover, technical traders can compare the current market price of the security with the intrinsic value for a detailed analysis. Thus, giving traders market forecasts and determining whether the security is overvalued or undervalued. 

What Are The Micro and Macroeconomic Factors Essential for Fundamental Analysis?

Here, we have a list of the macro and microeconomic factors of the economy impacting the trade: 

  • Economic health 
  • Sectors with a growth 
  • News and updates 
  • International political reports 
  • Competitive markets 
  • Costs of production 
  • Labor economics 
  • Supply and demand of the market

The traders can apply the fundamental analysis in various markets, including the stock market, forex market, and commodities market. 

Many investors of the financial markets use fundamental analysis for their business model. Investors who look forward to long-term traders use fundamental analysis for understanding the business and its elements from various market perspectives.

The securities market keeps appreciating and declining, making opportunities and risks for the traders. A trader with the analysis tools makes the best out of the market changes and avoids the losses by having an exit strategy. 

What Are The Types of Fundamental Analysis?

The fundamental analysis is classified into two main types – Qualitative and Quantitative analysis. Let’s take a closer look at them:

Qualitative Analysis:

It involves research about the company’s intrinsic value, management actions, the company’s financial success over time, and other related elements.

Quantitative Analysis:

A purely numerical study that evaluates the company’s financial statements and derives the stock prices from the findings.

Despite their differences, both types of analysis are critical for a thorough analysis of a company’s share price.

Fundamental analysis is also divided into two processes. The first is a top-down approach, and the second is a bottom-up approach.

The top-down strategy examines macroeconomic variables first, before focusing on a single firm. On the other hand, the bottom-up method examines the firm first and then examines the impact of macroeconomic issues on the company’s success.

What Are The Types of Fundamental Analysis Tools?

Fundamental analysts use several types of tools for market analysis that is extremely required for better results and are available free to access.

Some of the specific tools for basic market understanding include: 

Annual Report:

A report that gives an insight into the business and is significant for fundamental analysis. It carries all the information for market analysis in the annual report.

The report is available for free through the company’s official website. Thus, it is easy to access and study business growth.

Business/ Industry Data:

The industry data is important for the traders as investors are able to compare the company’s performance in the industry.

Moreover, the financial data is on the company’s website or published by the industries for its associations and businessmen. 

News and Updates:

The world is full of changes every second, and if a trader is aware of the news or information relating to their trade, they can analyse the impact.

A trader should be updated on the latest market developments & overall industry trends and can compare them with the ongoing happenings.

There are companies or even websites that provide updates on the latest market developments for the traders. 

MS Excel:

It is not for free to use, although MS Excel aids traders with the fundamental calculations to trade. The data retrieved from the company’s financial statements are available with the software, MS Excel giving advanced equations. Accountants and consultants can use the excel sheet to have a deep calculation of the change. 

How To Use Fundamental Analysis in the Financial Markets?

A trader can use the fundamental analysis as per their requirements or according to the security traded.

Here, we have the points that should be taken into consideration for a fundamental analysis of the financial market.  


The first and foremost point to take is to understand the company a trader is investing in. Investing is not easy if a trader goes blindly, therefore analyzing the company, its working, and factors of the market, etc., are necessary to be understood before jumping in. 

This will help the investors to know the market performance of the company; traders can check the balance sheet, fixed income, cash flow, etc., of the firm thus, having a fundamental understanding of its operations.

Similarly, traders can know if the company is making the right decision for its future growth. 

Even traders can visit the company’s website, know the industry, its management strategies, etc., for gathering information. 

Studying the Reports of the Company:

The next thing a trader can study is the reports of the firm, which will give them a deep knowledge of the company’s financial position in the market.

Knowing the company is not enough for making an investment. Companies’ profit-loss statements, operation costs, revenue earned, expenses, miscellaneous charges, etc., are essential. 

In addition, traders with all this knowledge and statements analyze the growth rate of the company. 

Debentures Report

The debts of the company should be taken into account for investments and fundamental analysis. A financial performance not only depends on the company’s earnings but also on the debts it has incurred and its financial ratios.

If the firm has huge debt, it is going to be difficult for the investor to trade in the sector. Therefore, companies with huge debts should be avoided. 


The business sector the trader plans to put up money in has competition from other sectors of the economy.

Hence, a trader should analyse the competition, the position of the company, and who’s the best among the trades for balanced trade.

The company which the trader is willing to trade should have better projects, growth in the future earnings and plans, etc. 

Future Prospects:

We know by now that fundamental analysis is for long-term investments, and looking into the future prospects of the company is a necessity for a good trade.

If a company has its roots down in the industry for a period of 20 to 25 years or more, it will be a beneficial investment strategy. Otherwise, traders should reconsider their investments. 

Regular Review:

Making investment decisions and not following the trade is the worst a trader can do. They should regularly, from time to time, look into the financial performance of the market and the market companies for profit from the market.

Being updated about the firm and its growth will help the trader invest and have knowledge of all the above-mentioned aspects of the trade. 

How to Do Fundamental Analysis?

To conduct fundamental analysis, traders have to follow certain steps:

  • Before conducting fundamental analysis, the first step is to open a trading account with a reliable and regulated online broker. A trader can go with brokers such as ABInvesting, as it offers a simple process of creating an account and accessing the market with trading tools. 
  • Now that you have a trading account, it’s time to understand the company that you intend to invest in. This particular point will allow you to get insights into how the firm is performing and its future potential.
  • After that, study the financial records to assess the company’s financial health. You can analyse the reports, balance sheet, profit and loss statement, security analysis, retained earnings, cash flow statement, industry conditions, revenue, expenses, etc.
  • Find out and make a list of the company’s top competitors. It is always better to choose the one that is consistently performing the best.
  • After that, analyze the future prospects of the company. Invest in those companies that are going to perform best in the next 20-30 years.
  • Last but not least, it is important to monitor the company’s performance regularly. It’s not like investing in a company and forgetting about it.

Who Are Fundamental Analysts?

Fundamental analysts are the person who analyzes the market, and anyone could be a market analyst, in fact.

It is not necessary that a person with a professional degree in commerce or accounts will understand the data.

A fundamental analyst requires the following skills for predicting the market changes and having a successful trade: 

  • Able to understand the financial statements 
  • Knowing the industry and its sectors that the business operates in for identifying the opportunities
  • Arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division should be known

The above-mentioned skills are vital for a good fundamental analysis of the market and making the right decisions. 

Fundamental Analysis vs Technical Analysis 

Investors are aware of the fact that the market has several things marking their foot in the trade, which can make the prices increase or decrease.

Here’s a detailed comparison between the technical analysis and fundamental analysis: 


Technical analysis is different in its aspects of trading; it uses the previous data of prices for predicting the change. At the same time, the fundamental analysis uses economic and political data for market analysis.  


In technical analysis, traders study the price changes through charts. In contrast, the fundamental analysis uses the financial statements of the companies.

The trader has to study the balance sheet, income statement, and cash flow statements for analysis. Comparing the intrinsic value of the assets with the reports of past and present.

When the intrinsic value of the security is low, traders invest in the market, but the technical analysts discuss the price reflections for investment. 


Technical analysis has the short-term market analysis technique, whereas fundamental analysis uses the long-term analysis time period.

The companies of the market usually have annual reports, which makes the fundamental analysis long-term. However, the technical analysis uses weekly, daily, or minute charts for analyzing the price movements. 


In addition, the two serve different goals for the shareholders; the technical analysis focuses on the short-term trades to earn profits. On the other hand, fundamental analysis requires traders to go for long-term investments for trade and profits. 

The similarity the two analysis factors share is they help traders predict the price movements in different aspects of the trade. This helps the traders know the market and which investment will have great profitability.


Fundamental analysis is an important part of the trade; a trader requires to analyze the trade from all perspectives.

They use both technical and fundamental analysis for a smooth trade. Fundamental analysis, as read above, relates to the economy, social, political factors, etc.

With the price of the security, it is also essential to know the factors behind the change in the market. 

However, these are not easy to study; traders need to have an understanding and knowledge of the trade and market.

The trading tools offered by brokers like ABInvesting and PrimeFin, help traders in executing the trades even more efficiently.


What Are The Fundamental Analysis Tools Provided by the Online Brokers?

Online brokers offer a number of fundamental tools for analyzing market changes. These include live market charts, financial reports, supply and demand, news and updates, competitor analysis, industry review, asset management, etc.

What Are The Basics of Fundamental Analysis?

Before conducting fundamental analysis, the few basic factors to consider, include the company’s structure & revenue, growth over the years, company’s debts, profitability ratios, and rate of turnover.




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